Chippewa Flowage Lake Association

HISTORY

WINTER DAM CONSTRUCTION PHOTOGRAPHS

ORAL HISTORY DOCUMENTATION
The Tunderbird and Old Post from Benjamin G. Armstrong's Early Life Among the Indians
Battle of the Horsefly (circa 1795) - The Story Behind the Moose Lake Historical Marker

HISTORIC MAPS

OLD POST PHOTOGRAPHS:

1915 Post Indian Baseball Team

TIME LINE

Recommended reading: Where The River is Wide - Pahquahwong and the Chippewa Flowage by Charlie Otto Rasmussen

July 29, 1837 – Treaty of St. Peters, Wisconsin Territory with the Chippewa (The First Pine/Land Cession Treaty)

October 4, 1842 – Treaty of La Point, Wisconsin Territory with the Chippewa of the Mississippi and Lake Superior (The Second Pine/Land Cession Treaty)

December 18, 1853 - Letter from LCO Area Chiefs to Alexander Ramsey after Death March to Sandy Lake.

September 30, 1854 – Treaty of La Pointe, Wisconsin with the Chippewa Indians of Lake Superior and Mississippi (The Reservation Treaty)

October 26, 1882 – A Letter from W.R. Durfee, U.S. Indian Agent, La Pointe Agency, Ashland, WI to from H. Price, Commissioner, Office of Indian Affairs, Department of the Interior (Washington) – Subject: Land transfer for Catholic Church and Cemetery with a petition from LCO Tribal Members

November 1, 1882 – A Letter from H. Price, Commissioner, Office of Indian Affairs, Department of the Interior (Washington) to W.R. Durfee, U.S. Indian Agent, La Pointe Agency, Ashland, WI – Subject: Land transfer for Church and Cemetery (Catholic)

March 18, 1885 – A Letter from W.R. Durfee, U.S. Indian Agent, La Pointe Agency, Ashland, WI to H. Price, Commissioner of Indian Affairs – Subject: Petition of March 14, 1885 from the Chiefs and Headmen of Pah-quay-oh-wong on the transfer of land for a church and school

March 31, 1885 – A Letter from Jonathan D.C. Akins, Commissioner, Office of Indian Affairs, Department of the Interior (Washington) to W.R. Durfee, Esquire, U.S. Indian Agent, La Pointe Agency, Ashland, WI – Subject – Land Transfer for Church and School (Old Post)

1887 – The Dawes Act or General Allotment Act

1911 (circa) - The State of Wisconsin started the process in proposing a Dam on the West Fork 1.7 miles northwest of today's dam.  They promoted, enacted laws funding and supported a study to flood the upper forks region of the Chippewa River.

April 22, 1916 – Third Highest Flow Recorded at Bishop’s Bridge (Highest Pre-Winter Dam) 7020 CFS

November 19, 1913 – A Letter from E.B. Meritt, Assistant Commissioner, Office of Indian Affairs, Department of the Interior (Washington) to William A. Light, Superintendent of Indian School, Hayward, WI – Subject: Presbyterian Mission Land (Old Post area)

August 17, 1916 – Letter from Charles McPherson, of the American Public Utility Company of Grand Rapids, Michigan to William A. Light, Superintendent of Hayward Indian School, Hayward, WI – Subject: Pa-qua-wong Storage Reservoir

October 12, 1916 – A Letter from E.B. Meritt, Assistant Commissioner, Office of Indian Affairs, Department of Interior (Washington) to Henry J. McQuigg, Superintendent Hayward Indian School, Hayward, WI – Subject: Flowage Rights in Indian Appropriation Bill approved May 18, 1916

November 7, 1916 – Minutes of the LCO Tribal Council Meeting held at Reserve, Wisconsin – Superintendent McQuigg’s and W-ML&PCo’s McPherson’s meeting on Flowage Rights

December 5, 1916 – Proposition of Wisconsin-Minnesota Light and Power Company, a Wisconsin Corporation, to the Lac Courte Oreilles Tribe of Chippewa Indians

December 9, 1916 – Minutes of the LCO Tribal Council Meeting held at Reserve, Wisconsin – Superintendent McQuigg’s and W-ML&PCo’s McPherson’s meeting on Flowage Rights

December 12, 1916 – A letter from Joseph Brewer, President of Wisconsin-Minnesota Light & Power Company to Mr. Henry J. McQuigg, Superintendent of Hayward Indian School, Hayward, WI – Subject: Pa-kwa-wang Reservoir Indian Land

March 15, 1917 – Newspaper Article from Sawyer County Record & Hayward Republican – BILL PRESENTED FOR THE ABOLISHMENT OF RESERVE

April 22, 1917 – Newspaper Article from Sawyer County Record & Hayward Republican – A. WISE LAND COMPAY BUYS 15,000 ACRES OF LAND

May 31, 1917 -  Newspaper Article from Sawyer County Record & Hayward Republican – LEGISLATURE ABOLISHES THE TOWN OF RESERVE

March 28, 1918 – Newspaper Article from Sawyer County Record & Hayward Republican – RESERVE INDIANS HOLD COUNCIL

April 22, 1919 – Notice of the LCO Tribal Council Meeting in Reserve on May 6, 1919 by R.C. Craige, Superintendent of Hayward Indian Schools, Hayward, WI – to settle the Flowage Rights issue

May 6, 1919 – Minutes of LCO Tribal Council Meeting Reserve Wisconsin –R.C. Craige, Superintendent of Hayward Indian Schools, Hayward, WI –  on the Flowage Rights with vote on 3 questions

May 16, 1919 – A Letter from R.C. Craige, Superintendent of Hayward Indian Schools, Hayward, WI to Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Washington, D.C. – Subject: Results of Tribal Council Meeting on May 6, 1919

June 4, 1919 – A Letter from E.B. Meritt, Assistant Commissioner, Office of Indian Affairs, Department of Interior (Washington) to R.C. Craige, Superintendent of Hayward Indian Schools, Hayward, WI – Subject: Recognition that no Compromise was Possible nor any further action by OIA

June 10, 1920 - Federal Power Act of 1920 passed empowering the Federal Government with the right to take tribal lands for power production and transmission lines

September 18, 1920 – Notice of LCO General Council Meeting on September 30, 1920 by R.C. Craige , Superintendent of Hayward Indian Schools, Hayward, WI – Subject W-ML&PCo Flowage Rights

September 30, 1920 – Minutes of LCO General Council Meeting held in Reserve, Wisconsin – R.C Craige , Superintendent of Hayward Indian Schools, Hayward, WI and Charles McPherson of W-ML&PCo on Proposed Flowage Rights

October 16, 1920 – Minutes of LCO General Council Meeting held in Reserve, Wisconsin – R.C Craige , Superintendent of Hayward Indian Schools, Hayward, WI and Charles McPherson of W-ML&PCo on Proposed Flowage Rights

December 4, 1920 – A Letter from R.C Craige , Superintendent of Hayward Indian Schools, Hayward, WI to Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Washington, DC on Flowage Rights

May 17, 1921- E. Ward Winton Memoirs with excerpts from the Report of the Public Hearing held at the Lac Courte Oreilles Indian Reservation, Reserve Wisconsin, on Tuesday May 17, 1921, before Major E.H. Marks, U.S. Corp of Engineers to consider the matters affecting Indian tribal lands in connection with the application the Wisconsin-Minnesota Light & Power Company to the Federal Power Commission for a license to construct a Reservoir on the Chippewa River

May 26, 1921 – Letter from Mr. Charles McPherson of American Public Utility Company to Mr. R.C. Craige, Superintendent of Hayward Indian School, Hayward Wisconsin – Subject - Documentation of Flowage Allotments

June 1, 1921 – Letter from H.S. Traylor Inspector, Indian Department – Report on land fraud and observations about the subject of Major Mark’s May 17th meeting

August 8, 1921 – The Federal Power Commission issued one of it's first licensees to W-MP&LC for the construction of the Winter Dam. In this action the Federal Government violate its Trust responsibilities.  W-MP&LC was required to:
        1.  ... pay the LCO Band $1,200 dollar ever year, for as long as they held the license, for the flooding of 315.4 acres.
        2.  ... cut all the timber in the area to be flooded and pay the Band for the timber.
        3.  ... remove and reinter all the graves from the flooded area.
        4.  ... replant and reestablish the wild rice beds that were to be flooded.
        5.  ... create a community of New Post, to replace Post (Trading Post), which was to be flooded by:
             a.  building homes, for all those displaced.
             b.  building a church, to replace the one whose foundation is on Church Island.
             c.  building a school.
             d.  building stores.
        6.  ... build and operate a fish rearing pond and station for the sole purpose of stocking the Chippewa Flowage.

October 19, 1921 – Letter from Mr. Charles McPherson of American Public Utility Company to Mr. R.C. Craige, Superintendent of Hayward Indian School, Hayward Wisconsin – Subject - Documentation of Flowage Allotments

January 12, 1922 – Newspaper Article – Sawyer County Gazette - ARRANGEMENT TO START ON RESERVOIR DAM

May 4, 1922 – Newspaper Article – Sawyer County Gazette - TWO MEN DROWN WHILE WORKING ON RESERVOIR DAM

December 22, 1922 - Minutes of a General Council of the Lac Courte Oreilles Band of Chippewa Indians held at Reserve, Wisconsin, Wild Rice on the Flowage issue

February 10, 1923 – A Letter from V.S. Hillger, Chief Engineer, Wisconsin-Minnesota Light & Power Company, Eau Claire, WI to R. C. Craige, Superintendent of Hayward Indian School, Hayward, WI – Subject: FPC House building relief

March 21, 1923 – A Letter from Byron A. Sharpe, Superintendent of Hayward Indian School, Hayward, WI to Brown, Wisconsin State Historical Society, Madison, WI – Subject: Grave Removal

March 23, 1923 – A Letter from C.E. Brown, Wisconsin State Historical Society, Madison, WI – to Byron A. Sharpe, Superintendent of Hayward Indian School, Hayward, WI – Subject: Grave Removal

March 26, 1923 – A Letter from Byron A. Sharpe, Superintendent of Hayward Indian School, Hayward, WI to Brown, Wisconsin State Historical Society, Madison, WI – Subject: Grave Removal

March 28, 1923 – A Letter from C.E. Brown, Wisconsin State Historical Society, Madison, WI – to Byron A. Sharpe, Superintendent of Hayward Indian School, Hayward, WI – Subject: Grave Removal

March 29, 1923 - Dams closed to minimum flow for filling of the Chippewa Flowage Reservoir

March 30, 1923 – A Letter from Byron A. Sharpe, Superintendent of Hayward Indian School, Hayward, WI to Brown, Wisconsin State Historical Society, Madison, WI – Subject: Grave Removal

April 20, 1923 – Newspaper Article – Milwaukee Journal – Indian Leader Sees Bloodshed – Interview with Father Philip Gordon, Township Gerrymandering, Voting Rights, TB, and the Graveyards Flooding on LCO

June 27, 1923 – A Telegram from E.B. Meritt, Assistant Commissioner, Office of Indian Affairs, Department of the Interior (Washington) to Byron A. Sharpe, Superintendent of Hayward Indian School, Hayward, WI – Subject: Water Level Reaching Graves

June 28, 1923 – A Telegram from Byron A. Sharpe, Superintendent of Hayward Indian School, Hayward, WI to E.B. Meritt, Assistant Commissioner, Office of Indian Affairs, Department of the Interior (Washington) Subject: Grave Removal

June 30, 1923 – A Letter from Father Philip Gordon, Mission Priest, Reserve, WI to Byron A. Sharpe, Superintendent of Hayward Indian School, Hayward, WI – Subject: Grave Removal

July 3, 1923 – A Letter from Byron A. Sharpe, Superintendent of Hayward Indian School, Hayward, WI to Commissioner of Indian Affairs (Washington) – Subject: Grave Removal – Catholic Grave Yard

July 6, 1923 – A Letter from Byron A. Sharpe, Superintendent of Hayward Indian School, Hayward, WI to Commissioner of Indian Affairs (Washington) – Subject: Grave Removal – Response to Father Gordon

July 27, 1923 – A Letter from V.S. Hillger, Chief Engineer, Wisconsin-Minnesota Light & Power Company, Eau Claire, WI to Byron A. Sharpe, Superintendent of Hayward Indian School, Hayward, WI – Subject: Timber Cut Payment

July 30, 1923 – A Letter from Father Philip Gordon, Priest, Catholic Mission, Reserve, WI to Byron A. Sharp, Superintendent Hayward Indian School, Hayward, WI – Subject: A request for an Official Ruling on ability of restricted for individual tribal member over damages on condemned land

August 1, 1923 - Chippewa Flowage full - 3 months earlier than expected

Fall 1923 – W-MP&LC request from the Federal Power Commission relief from having to build and maintain the fish rearing station.  The Federal Power Commission quickly granted their request

November 23, 1923 – A Letter from Byron A. Sharp, Superintendent of Hayward Indian School Hayward, WI to J. H. Sargent, Northern States Power Company – Subject: John Potack Claim Settlement

June 14, 1924 – A Letter from Charles L. Gruber, Government Farmer, Reserve, WI to Byron A. Sharp, Superintendent of Hayward Indian School Hayward, WI – Subject: Grave Removal – List of Names of People not removed

September 4, 1924– A Letter from Charles H. Burke, Commissioner, Office of Indian Affairs, Department of Interior (Washington) to James P. Ryder, Superintendent Hayward Agency, Hayward WI – Subject: Flooded Road Issue

September 8, 1924 – A Letter from James P. Ryder, Superintendent of Hayward Indian School Hayward, WI to Commission of Indian Affairs, Washington D.C. – Subject: Flooded Roads

Summer 1925 – W-MP&LC requested relief from their responsibility for any further planting of wild rice, building of homes, stores, the school and the church.  Again the Federal Power Commission quickly granted the request.

September 1925 (circa) - Wisconsin-Minnesota Light & Power enters bankrupcy and is absorbed by Northern States Power - 18 months of drought is considered the major cause of this.

September 23, 1925 – Minutes of LCO Tribal Council Meeting at New Post, Wisconsin – Called by R.C. Craige, Superintendent of Hayward Indians School, Hayward, WI – Subject: Catholic Graveyard (Church Island)

October 8, 1925 – A Letter from James P. Ryder, Superintendent of Hayward Indian School Hayward, WI to Commission of Indian Affairs, Washington D.C. – Subject: Indian Grave Removal in the Flowage Area

December 15, 1925 – Notice from the Superintendent of Hayward Indian Schools, requesting all persons having relatives interred on allotments or tribal lands in the ‘flowage’ are to file their acceptance or rejection of the offer made by Northern States Power

December 28, 1925 – A Letter from James P. Ryder, Superintendent of Hayward Indian School Hayward, WI to Mr. J.H. Sargent, Land and Tax Agent, Northern States Power Company, Minneapolis, Minnesota – Subject Exhumed Bodies

February 15, 1926 – A Letter from E.B. Meritt, Assistant Commissioner, Office of Indian Affairs, Department of the Interior (Washington) to James Navicah, Couderay, New Post Village, WI – Subject: Body Removal from the Catholic Cemetery – Maggie Kadock

August 3, 1926 – Letter  from Father Philip Gordon, Centuria, Wisconsin to J.P. Ryder, Superintendent, Hayward Indian School, Hayward, Wisconsin – Subject – Request for Status of Graves and return of documents and copies of all maps, notes and letters

August 19, 1926 – Letter from J.P. Ryder, Superintendent, Hayward Indian School, Hayward Wisconsin to Father Philip Gordon, Centuria, Wisconsin – Subject – Status of Graves and return of documents and copies of all maps, notes and letters

July 14, 1929 – Newspaper article – Milwaukee Journal - Indian Hearing Marked by Humor and Tragedy – U.S. Senators Told of Flooding of Tribesmen’s Burial Ground and Health Needs
Complete Senatorial Record Of the July 11 1929 Hayward Testimony Before US Senators (From Wisconsin Historical Society's Turning Points)

1939 – The Federal Power Commission the annual payment to LCO for the extra flooded land from $1,200 per year to, $1389.09, without assessing arrears due.

September 4, 1941 - Highest Flow Recorded at Bishop’s Bridge 7520 CFS

June 8, 1944 – Sixteenth Highest Flow Recorded at Bishop’s Bridge 5060 CFS

June 29, 1946 - Second Highest Flow Recorded at Bishop’s Bridge 7220 CFS

October 20, 1949 - Louie Spray catches the world record muskie on the Chippewa Flowage 69 pounds, 11 ounces (Source Book: Three Record Muskies In His Days - The Life and Times of Louie Spray by John Dettloff {with Louie Spray})

May 11, 1950 – Fifth Highest Flow Recorded at Bishop’s Bridge 6650 CFS

May 4, 1954 – Forth Highest Flow Recorded at Bishop’s Bridge 6800 CFS

(Circa 1960) – Story of Lake Chippewa by W.A. Blackburn 2 page manuscript sent to us by his grandson Ben Nicholas

June 18, 1967 – Sixth Highest Flow Recorded at Bishop’s Bridge 6460 CFS

August 1971 - Three Day Takeover of the Winter Dam by Lac Coutre Oreilles Band members which resulted in negotiation towards a settlement that went from 1971-1984 (NOTE: this take over was the beginning of the annual Honor the Earth Powwow and Festival)

August 21, 1972 – Eleventh Highest Flow Recorded at Bishop’s Bridge 5930 CFS

June 20, 1981 – Thirteenth Highest Flow Recorded at Bishop’s Bridge 5460 CFS

February 1, 1984 - Settlement between Northern States Power, the Lac Courte Oreilles Band, Secretary of the Interior, Secretary of Agriculture and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources

July 1985 - Construction of Lac Courte Oreilles HydroElectric begins

October 9, 1985 – Eighth Highest Flow Recorded at Bishop’s Bridge 6290 CFS (Causing Damage to LCO Hydro Construction Site Photo 1, Photo 2, Photo 3) This event occurred during a major rebuild of the dam 2 gates were inoperative on the dam at the time.

December 2, 1986 - Lac Courte Oreilles HydroElectric substantially complete and on line.

June 11, 1987 - Power Sales Contract altered to change minimum flow requirements on the Chippewa River due to Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources concerns and restraining order.

September 15, 1994 – Ninth Highest Flow Recorded at Bishop’s Bridge 6070 CFS

April 29, 1996 – Fourteenth Highest Flow Recorded at Bishop’s Bridge 5330 CFS

April 2, 1998 – Fifteenth Highest Flow Recorded at Bishop’s Bridge 5290 CFS

April 20, 2002 – Seventh Highest Flow Recorded at Bishop’s Bridge 6380 CFS

May 12, 2003 – Twelfth Highest Flow Recorded at Bishop’s Bridge 5560 CFS

April 21, 2004 – Tenth Highest Flow Recorded at Bishop’s Bridge 6050 CFS



INVASIVE SPECIES AND WATER QUALITY CONCERNS
SAWYER COUNTY ZONING SUMMARY (PDF file)
AUGUST 2007 CHIPPEWA FLOWAGE FISHERY MANAGEMENT PLAN (PDF file)
 (NOTE: The Chippewa Flowage Lake Association does not endorse this management plan and we note that the water level comments in the plan do not concur with  Federal Energy Regulatory Commissions requirements.)
If you have any corrections, comments or possible additions please contact me.


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